However, despite the synergies between CT and STEM education, integrating the two to support synergistic learning remains an important challenge. In this paper, we present a research study with CTSiM Computational Thinking in Simulation and Modeling —computational thinking-based learning environment for K science, where students build and simulate computational models to study and gain an understanding of science processes. We investigate a set of core challenges both computational and science domain related that middle school students face when working with CTSiM, how these challenges evolve across different modeling activities, and the kinds of support provided by human observers that help students overcome these challenges.
Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning However, despite the synergies between CT and STEM education, integrating the two to support synergistic learning remains an important challenge.
In this paper, we present a research study with CTSiM Computational Thinking in Simulation and Modeling —computational thinking-based learning environment for K science, where students build and simulate computational models to study and gain an understanding of science processes.
We investigate a set of core challenges both computational and science domain related that middle school students face when working with CTSiM, how these challenges evolve across different modeling activities, and the kinds of support provided by human observers that help students overcome these challenges.
We identify four broad categories and 14 subcategories of challenges and show that the human-provided scaffolds help reduce the number of challenges students face over time.
Finally, we discuss our plans to modify the CTSiM interfaces and embed scaffolding tools into CTSiM to help students overcome their various programming, modeling, and science-related challenges and thus gain a deeper understanding of the science concepts.
Computational thinking, Agent-based modeling, Simulations, Visual programming, Learning-by-design, Scaffolding, Science education Introduction Computational thinking CT refers to the concepts and representational practices involved in formulating and solving problems, designing systems, and understanding human behavior by drawing on fundamental computing concepts like problem representation, abstraction, decomposition, recursion, simulation, and verification Grover and Pea ; Wing A number of researchers Blikstein and Wilensky ; Hambrusch et al.
Despite the emerging consensus that CT is central to STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines Henderson et al. Currently, a majority of CT-based systems adopt open-ended contexts such as game design, storytelling, and mobile app development.
Grover and Pea argue that the idea of computing as a medium for teaching subjects besides computer science—such as science and math—remains under-investigated.
They proposed that studies which integrate CT and STEM learning should focus on identifying the hurdles that exist in developing essential CT elements in learners of different age groups and propose means for addressing them.
In this paper, our overarching goal is to study specific issues in integrating CT with middle school curricular science instruction to support science and CT learning, while also detecting and addressing the types of difficulties students face when working in these environments.
A good understanding of the learning processes provides opportunities for designing relevant adaptive scaffolds that can help the students overcome their difficulties.
Adaptive scaffolds refer to actions taken by an agent e. Such scaffolds often seek to highlight differences between the desired and current learner performances and provide direction to students who are unsure of how to proceed. Over the past few years, we have developed CTSiM Computational Thinking in Simulation and Modeling —a learning environment for K science that is based on a computational thinking approach Basu et al.
The system consists of an agent-based, visual programming and modeling platform where students can model, simulate, and study science processes to simultaneously learn about domain-general computational concepts and practices and relevant science phenomena.
In this paper, we describe a think-aloud study with an initial version of CTSiM to identify and understand the types of challenges middle school students face in working with this environment and the kinds of support they require to overcome these challenges and successfully complete their learning tasks.
Challenges have been documented in the literature separately for programming, science learning, and inquiry learning using modeling and simulations. However, when CT and science are integrated using a learning-bymodeling paradigm, the challenges that arise are not known.
After identifying the challenges, we go on to describe how they influence subsequent redesign and development of the CTSiM system to increase its effectiveness and make it better suited for integration with classroom science instruction. Page 2 of 35 Basu et al. We conducted a pull-out study with 15 6th grade students in a Metro Nashville school.
Each student worked on the system individually and was assisted one-on-one by members of our research team, who not only primarily acted as observers but also interacted with the students asking them clarifying questions and providing support when they faced difficulties.
All of the students work on the system and their interactions with the researchers were captured using Camtasia, and these videos were coded and later analyzed to answer the following research questions: What are the different types of challenges that students face while working on CTSiM, and what kinds of supports can help them overcome these challenges?
How do these challenges evolve across a sequence of curricular units taking into account that students are scaffolded one-on-one by researchers when they have difficulties? The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We conclude with a discussion of how our results have been influencing design of subsequent iterations of our system and the design of CT-based learning environments for teaching science in general.
Literature review Design as a core focus of learning using computational programming and modeling Sengupta et al. Grover and Pea have identified examples of representational practices as abstractions and pattern generalizations that include modeling and simulation activities ; symbol systems and representations; algorithmic notions of flow of control; structured problem decomposition modularizing ; conditional logic; and iterative, recursive, and parallel thinking.
Other epistemic practices include systematic processing of information, adopting efficiency and performance constraints, and debugging and systematic error detection.
This, in turn, aligns with the following perspectives: Several scholars have pointed out that computing can be used successfully as a medium for teaching and learning other subjects and that this can facilitate learning in both the subject and computing domains.
For example, Papert stated that programming is reflexive with other domains; that is, learning programming in concert with concepts from another domain such as math and science can be easier than learning them separately.
Kay and Goldberg showed that object-oriented programming using SmallTalk is useful for learning math, science, and art. Emile, a scaffolded graphical programming interface designed and used to help students learn physics, represents another example of synergistic learning Guzdial Redish and WilsonSolowayand Kafai et al.
More recently, some researchers have exploited the synergy between CT and science to develop CT-based science curricular units for K classrooms Sengupta et al. In each of the environments discussed above, students learn through an iterative model building process.
Previous studies have shown that middle school and elementary children can successfully use programming as a mode of inquiry to develop models of scientific phenomena, which in turn helps them develop a deep understanding of the relevant scientific concepts diSessa et al.
CTSiM adopts this learning-by-design pedagogical approach Kolodner et al.The Tennessee writing rubrics are designed to score the student responses from the writing portion of the TNReady assessment. Each rubric is aligned to the appropriate grade-level standards in the Writing and Language strands.
tranceformingnlp.com is ranked in the world (amongst the 40 million domains). A low-numbered rank means that this website gets lots of visitors. The writing you do in your classes will help you, as will writing essays, stories, editorials, a personal journal, or other writing you do on your own.
It is also a good idea to practice writing within a time limit.
Jan 19, · On February first, our eighth grade students will be taking the TCAP Writing Assessment test. This will be an expository essay test, based on a basic ideology of a five paragraph essay. This is something that we have been working with all year, but we will be entering TCAP W.A. Bootcamp starting the week of January Grade 8 Pennsylvania Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum, Assessment and Instruction PSSA GRADE 8 English Language Arts Item and Scoring Sampler—September ii TABLE OF CONTENTS INFORMATION ABOUT ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Unlike a writing prompt, the TDA question is a text-dependent. The Tennessee writing rubrics are designed to score the student responses from the writing portion of the TNReady assessment. Each rubric is aligned to the appropriate grade-level standards in the Writing and Language strands.
Grade 8 TCAP Writing Assessment Summary. Data from February Writing Assessment: • tranceformingnlp.com Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of assessments with writing-to-sources prompts (or use some of the resources listed below).
Writing standards for seventh grade define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at this grade level. By understanding 7th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. Fifth grade assessment sample test math Serial key for game burnout paradise Writing prompts 3rd grade Antifilter Sore throat dry cough fever muscle ache and diarrhea Emo scroll boxes for myspace 8th grade eog practice worksheets Cough burning eyes sore neck.