Selective toxicity and exposure types biology essay

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Selective toxicity and exposure types biology essay

Short essay on Selective Toxicity Debjani Advertisements: Selective toxicity can be defined as the property of a toxic agent to harm or eradicate one species without affecting the other even if the two species are in a very close association.

Selective toxicity of a chemical agent is evaluated by using selectivity co-efficient which is the ratio between LD50 of the two species concerned: Chemicals having selectivity co-efficient considerably higher than unity are said to be highly specific or selective in their action.

As this value approaches unity the selective action of the toxic agent diminishes, both the species involved are harmed equally. As a matter of fact, selective action of a toxic agent on different species or organisms forms the very basis of Economic Toxicology.

It is the property of a chemical agent to harm one species while inflicting little or nominal damage to other species which is used to protect the desired species against the harmful action of undesired ones.

The selective action of chemical agent may be due to following reasons: Due to differences in the process of absorption, distribution and accumulation the toxic agent may attain toxic concentrations in some species while in others it remains well below the toxic level.

Thus, only those species are harmed which can absorb more toxic agent. Simply, a large surface area as compared to unit weight may at times result in greater absorption of the toxic chemical in some species.

Selective Toxicity And Exposure Types Biology Essay | Literature Essays

Insects for example, have a greater surface area per unit weight as compared to plants or mammals. This causes a number of insects to absorb much more insecticide than plants or mammals do.

Selective toxicity and exposure types biology essay

The effectively of radio-active iodine in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is due to its selective uptake by tissues of the thyroid gland. Rapid detoxification and excretion of chemical agent in one species while a slower rate or total absence of these processes in another may result in attainment of toxic levels in the latter.

Acute toxicity is due to short-run exposure and happens within a comparatively short period of clip, whereas chronic toxicity is due to long-run exposure and happens over a longer period. Most toxic effects are reversible and does non do lasting harm, but complete recovery may take a long clip. The two types most frequently referred to are acute and chronic. Acute toxicity is due to short-run exposure and happens within a comparatively short period of clip, whereas chronic toxicity is due to long-run exposure and happens over a longer period. Selective Toxicity Of Anti Cancer Agents Biology Essay Published: November 2, Cancer is known to be caused by a large group of .

The relatively low toxicity of Organophosphate insecticide Malathion in mammals is due to its decomposition into harmless compounds while in insects this process is much slower and results into a large concentration of the insecticide which becomes toxic to the insect.

Selective toxicity of many chemicals is due to the fact that they are capable of disturbing certain specific structure or bio-chemical processes which may not be present or are not very significant in the desired species.

For example, chemicals acting on Central Nervous System like most of the insecticides affect only animals while causing no damage to plants as a nervous system is absent in plants.

Selective Toxicity Of Anti Cancer Agents Biology Essay

Organophosphate insecticides do not harm plants because they act on the process of synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. Herbicides like Carbamate derivatives have little action on animal life as they selectivity inhibit the process of photosynthesis which does not occur in animals.

Antibiotics like Penicellin, Cephalosporine etc. Like-wise Bacteria synthesise Folic acid from p-amino-l benzoic acid, glutamic acid and pterdine. Sulphonamide drugs which resemble p-arainol benzoic acid in both charge and dimensions antagonise the incorporation of p-amino-l benzoic acid and therefore inhabit folic-acid synthesis.

It is due to lack of folic acid anil bacteria disappear. The chemical pathway is absent in humans which have to absorb folic I acid from intestines - from the food which we eat. Sulphonamide drugs therefore do not harm humans. Factors which influence the toxicity of a chemical agent introduced deliberately or accidentally inside a living being are as follows:Different factors contribute to the toxicity of a substance.

The chief factor would hold to be the manner the substance enters the organic structure whether it was inhaled, ingested or even applied to the tegument. The two types most often referred to are acute and chronic. Acute toxicity is due to short-term exposure and happens within a relatively short period of time, whereas chronic toxicity is due to long-term exposure and happens over a longer period.

Selective Toxicity Of Anti Cancer Agents Biology Essay Published: November 2, Cancer is known to be caused by a large group of various diseases, all involved in cellular malfunction.

Short essay on Selective Toxicity

Toxicity is normally divided into four types, based on the number of exposures to a poison and the time it takes for toxic symptoms to develop. The two types most often referred to are acute and chronic.

Selective toxicity and exposure types biology essay

Acute toxicity is due to short-run exposure and happens within a comparatively short period of clip, whereas chronic toxicity is due to long-run exposure and happens over a longer period. Most toxic effects are reversible and does non do lasting harm, but complete recovery may take a long clip.

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