Pharmaceutical companies want to be sure that the products they spend years and millions of dollars to create are not easily reproduced and sold at discount prices. The profits pharmaceuticals make of their patented products are supposed to refinance new research. So taking away their exclusive distribution rights and allowing other manufacturers to just copy the product and sell it at minimal costs also harms the innovative processes in which new and better drugs are developed .
This article is part of a series marking World Aids Day. Our foundation essays are longer than usual and take a wider look at key issues affecting society.
There is no doubt that the crisis caused by the HIV pandemic requires urgent and bold steps. While the roll-out of anti-retroviral therapy has had a significant impact on the epidemic, there are still 1.
In the long-term, the use of anti-retrovirals to control the HIV epidemic is unrealistic. Our best hope for an AIDS-free future is the development of a vaccine. Two major clinical trials are set to begin in South Africa in Both seek to test whether antibodies, which circulate in blood and are part of our natural defence to infection, can prevent new HIV infections.
The first trial, called HVTNrelies on the classical approach of active immunisation. Here a vaccine designed to mimic an infection causes the body to make antibodies to HIV. The second trial, called AMP or antibody-mediated protection, will run in parallel to the first trial.
It will use manufactured antibodies that are infused into the body. This approach, called passive immunisation, has been employed for over a years to treat a variety of infectious diseases.
This has only recently become an option for HIV. This trial is unprecedented in HIV prevention research. We are at a pivotal stage in HIV vaccine development. Conducting two large scale efficacy trials in the region of the world with the highest HIV prevalence heralds a new more aggressive approach to tackle what is our most serious public health threat.
This vaccine is now being tested in southern Africa, but it has been tailored to match the viruses circulating in this region. There are also other modifications that are intended to improve on the efficacy of the vaccine which will hopefully facilitate its licensure.
The first, a cellular response, uses a harmless canarypox virus that has been engineered to carry small pieces of HIV. This tricks the body into thinking it is under attack so that it mounts an immune response to HIV. For the other component — the antibody response — soluble protein derived from the outer envelope coat of the virus are recreated in the laboratory, and used to elicit antibodies to HIV.
In RV, individuals who developed antibodies to a small fragment of envelope called the variable region 1 and 2 V1V2 had a reduced risk of HIV infection. As such, these immune responses are used to benchmark future trials.
Since the trial in South Africa is using a newly configured vaccine, it first needs to undergo safety and immunogenicity testing. As such, a small trial involving healthy people at low risk of HIV infection is currently taking place.
If the results look promising then HVTNthe large efficacy trial that will be done in high-risk individuals, will proceed.The discovery suggests that the multitude of global AIDS viruses all shared a common African ancestor within the past 40 to 50 years.
In , the first cases of AIDS were identified among gay men in the United States; the disease still did not have a name, with different groups referring to it in different ways. Essay title: Pharmaceutical Companies, Intellectual Property, and the Global Aids Epidemic IBUS - International Management Pharmaceutical Companies, Intellectual Property, and the Global AIDS Epidemic/5(1).
Leading the Fight Against the AIDS Epidemic: Global Achievements of Dr. Helene Gayle Rebecca A. Abbott Northern Arizona University Abstract This paper examines the international health threat posed by .
This essay intends to answer the six questions related to the In-Depth Integrative Case and highlight the global rights conflict of between a developing country’s fight to confront the AIDS epidemic and intellectual property protection.
Fighting the Global AIDS Epidemic Essay Sample by admin September 23, July 19, Leave a Comment on Fighting the Global AIDS Epidemic Essay Sample . Two trials signal pivotal point in fight against the AIDS epidemic November 29, am EST She is a member of the Board of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise.